We are the faculty about life and for life.
The Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology was founded in October 2018 with the support of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The aim of the Faculty is to train highly qualified specialists in the field of biology and molecular biotechnology as a response for the demand in the field of science (research centers, academic institutes, technology parks) and various sectors of the economy (pharmaceutical, medical, biotechnology industry, chemical industry, commercial structures operating in the field of biological sciences, etc.).
About the Faculty
The laboratory is developing a new method of personalized drug therapy for cancer patients, which includes establishment of a three-dimensional culture of tumor organoids, followed by a personalized test of chemotherapeutic and targeted drugs to determine the most effective therapy for each individual patient.
Established in 2020, the Laboratory of Molecular Physiology studies the role of microRNA isoforms in the pathogenesis of intestinal diseases and develops new therapeutic approaches to intestinal condition treatment using microRNA isoforms. We collaborate with the National Medical Research Radiological Center, the Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf.
The aim of the department is to use the scientific and teaching potential of the leading IBCh researchers to organize a world-class scientific and educational center at the Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology.
2023 Fifth International Conference Neurotechnologies and Neurointerfaces (CNN) 18-20 Sept. 2023
Cognitive and emotional load in the course of increasing the complexity of tasks leads to the activation of various parts of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and can be accompanied by an increase in the efficiency of problem solving. An increase in cognitive load under the condition of high motivation is a stress factor and is expressed in a different reaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic links in response to the load. This study explored the ANS reactions by measuring the pupil size of 61 healthy sub-clinical volunteers in response to the gradually increasing complexity of tasks. The experiment included 3 blocks of a combined visual search and 1-back task with six levels of difficulty. K-mean clustering method was used for the analysis. An increase in the complexity of the task from the first to the sixth level led to different dynamics of the pupil size in the three clustered groups. In one group, an intense high switchability and an active reaction with a large amplitude of changes were visible, in the second group the dynamics of changes was minimal, and a third intermediate group was also identified. Our results highlight individual differences in the reaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of ANS under cognitive workload depending on biometric and psychometric parameters.
Challenges in Characterization of Transcriptomes of Extracellular Vesicles and Non-Vesicular Extracellular RNA Carriers
Since its original discovery over a decade ago, extracellular RNA (exRNA) has been found in all biological fluids. Furthermore, extracellular microRNA has been shown to be involved in communication between various cell types. Importantly, the exRNA is protected from RNases degradation by certain carriers including membrane vesicles and non-vesicular protein nanoparticles. Each type of carrier has its unique exRNA profile, which may vary depending on cell type and physiological conditions. To clarify putative mechanisms of intercellular communication mediated by exRNA, the RNA profile of each carrier has to be characterized. While current methods of biofluids fractionation are continuously improving, they fail to completely separate exRNA carriers. Likewise, most popular library preparation approaches for RNA sequencing do not allow obtaining exhaustive and unbiased data on exRNA transcriptome. In this mini review we discuss ongoing progress in the field of exRNA, with the focus on exRNA carriers, analyze the key methodological challenges and provide recommendations on how the latter could be overcome.
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences. 2023. Vol. 10.
Is Frequency of Practice of Different Types of Physical Activity Associated with Health and a Healthy Lifestyle at Different Ages?Several studies have shown that physical activity (PA) is related to physical and mental health. Yet, there are few studies on the frequency of PA as it relates to health and a healthy lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of practicing different types of physical activities (dependent variables), living a healthy lifestyle (BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption), physical health (sum of all doctor visits except psychiatrists) and mental health (a sum of visits to psychiatrists) at different ages (independent variables). We fo-cused on three types of PA: (1) medium to high-intensity aerobic exercises; (2) low to medium intensity relaxing and stretching exercises, (3) outdoor leisure PA. 9,617 participants (ages: 19 -81) were included in the study (with health registries over a period of 10 years prior to a cross-sectional survey). Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression on frequencies of three types of PA and factors related to health and healthy lifestyles, as well as age and sex, were performed in this study. The results indicate that a higher frequency of practicing PA had a higher probability of association with the following factors: lower BMI, less or non-smoking behavior (types 1 & 3); higher education (types 1 & 2); higher age (types 2 & 3) and better physical health (type 1). Occasional (practicing sometimes) PA, type 2, was positively associated with poorer mental health (higher number of psychiatrist visits). Women were more likely to practice PA type 2, and men – PA types 3 & 1. Conclusion: In general, a higher frequency of PA is related with better health and healthy life styles; with the exception of PA type 2 that is related to poorer mental health.
physical therapy, sports therapy and rehabilitation. 2023102018. MDPI Preprints, 2023